Exodus , the liberation of the people of Israel from slavery in Egypt in the 13th century bce , under the leadership of Moses; also, the Old Testament book of the same name. The Hebrew title of the work is Shemot Names. Chapters 1—18 narrate the history of the Egyptian bondage, the Exodus from Egypt, and the journey to Mount Sinai under the leadership of Moses. Since Exodus continues the sacred story of the divine promise to Israel begun in Genesis, it must be seen as part of a larger literary unit that is variously understood to include the first four, five, or six books of the Bible. Scholars have identified three literary traditions in Exodus, designated by the letters J, E, and P. The J strand, so called because it uses the name Yahweh Jahweh in German for God, is a Judaean rendition of the sacred story, perhaps written as early as bce. The E strand, which designates God as Elohim , is a version of the sacred story from the northern kingdom of Israel, written in about — bce.
Evidence for the Exodus
The consensus of modern scholars is that the Bible does not give an accurate account of the origins of the Israelites, who appear instead to have formed as an entity in the central highlands of Canaan in the late second millennium BCE from the indigenous Canaanite culture. The story of the Exodus is spread over four of the biblical books of the Torah or Pentateuch, namely Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers , and Deuteronomy.
There is a widespread agreement that the composition of the Torah took place in the Middle Persian Period 5th century BCE ,  although some traditions behind it are older since allusions to the story are made by 8th-century BCE prophets such as Amos and Hosea. The Biblical Exodus is central in Judaism , with it being recounted daily in Jewish prayers and celebrated in festivals such as Passover. Early Christians saw the Exodus as a typological prefiguration of resurrection and salvation by Jesus.
Using the Bible’s own system of dating, the Exodus happened BC. We can date it accurately, because the Bible timeline begins its count of Israel the nation.
Firstly, ancient Jewish writers will be considered that especially mention chronology concerning the Exodus. Secondly, ancient secular writers that gave opinions about the origins of the Jews will be considered. Finally, a look at the early church fathers that constructed chronologies of the Old Testament. One of the most important considerations is what the Biblical writers themselves said about the date of the Exodus.
Chapter two will consider both the Old and New Testament writers concerning the Exodus. The last chapter will focus on the archaeological evidence that has been found that best fits into the chronology of the Exodus. The most important discovery is the Merneptah stele that mentions Israel which forced the revision of a number of liberal theories.
BIBLE HISTORY DAILY
Skeptics will criticize the Biblical account as being false, or mythological, because secular science does not agree with the established Biblical dating, even though there is a lot of historical and archeological evidence in its support. As we study over the next few posts, I will reference evidence in support of the earlier dating in the 15th century BC, beginning with the Biblical text evidence as follows:. There are two main anchors for the earlier Biblical dating:.
Between these two anchor points there are years and Scripture support for this includes both Old and New Testament references.
Exodus, the liberation of the people of Israel from slavery in Egypt in the 13th The Hebrew title of the work is Shemot (Names). Exodus. Quick Facts. date. c.
Create a free account or login now to enjoy the full benefits of Enter the Bible:. Exodus begins with a depiction of Israel’s servitude in Egypt and God’s selection of Moses to move Israel out of that servitude. Pharaoh contests this intention of God, and God responds by sending plagues on Egypt that culminate with the death of the firstborn and deliverance at the sea. Israel prepares for this deliverance by founding the Passover and responds with triumphant singing after the deliverance.
Israel journeys to Sinai, murmuring along the way. At Sinai, Israel receives the Ten Commandments and the covenant relationship is established. While Moses is receiving additional instructions from God on Sinai-notably the designs for the tabernacle-Israel rebels by building the golden calf.
A Case for the Old Testament: What is the dating of the Exodus and why is it important?
For many years the date of the date of the Exodus has been disputed and the issue has become a major discussion in the realms of Old Testament debate as some feel that issues such as biblical historicity rest upon the matter. There are two main alternatives for the date of the Exodus. Both sides believe their respective dates to fit in best with the main pieces of biblical, archaeological and other data which are discussed in this essay.
BCE) and the current “consensus” 19th dynasty.
Exodus is not only the name of a book in the Old Testament but a momentous event for the Hebrew people—their departure from Egypt. Unfortunately, there is no easy answer as to when it occurred. Although there can be a chronology within the framework of a fictional story or myth, dating the events is generally impossible. To have a historical date, normally an event must be real; therefore the question must be asked as to whether or not the Exodus actually happened.
Some believe the Exodus never took place because there is no physical or literary proof beyond the Bible. Others say all the proof that is needed is in the Bible. Archaeologists and historians, comparing archaeological, historical, and Biblical records, tend to date the Exodus somewhere between the 3d and 2d millennia B. Most favor one of three basic time frames:.
Old Testament: Exodus
While the Bible, plainly read, argues for an early-date Exodus c BC, some scholars claim that there is a lack of archaeological evidence to support this, and prefer to put the Exodus at a later date of c BC. The only variable is the time-span of Joshua and the Judges. However, the late-date Exodus allows only years for Joshua and the Judges, while the early-date Exodus, allows years.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. The Historical Authenticity and Dating of the Exodus. Lori Rose. However, the search for evidence of the Exodus presents several challenges. No direct archaeological proof has ever been found for the events that took place during the Exodus, which has caused many scholars to doubt the authenticity of the event. James K. He spent the first sixteen years of his life living in Egypt and has dedicated his life to researching and studying biblical events that took places in and around Egypt.
High water tables in the Delta make excavating to early levels difficult and expensive. For this reason, the hundreds of sights located in the Delta have not received as much attention as sites on the Nile from Cairo south to Aswan. The moist environment has proven to be detrimental in locating surviving papyrus documents in the area.
Date of the Exodus
Both of the conventional dates for the Exodus, ca. The so-called “early date” of ca. However, in Judges and 1 Samuel the Bible seems to indicate that the time between the Exodus and Samuel was longer. This biblical chronological conflict is easily seen by adding up the well-known 40 years of wilderness wandering, years of alternating periods of oppression and deliverance recorded in the book of Judges, 40 years for the career of Eli, 40 years for the reign of Saul, and 40 years for the reign of David.
This already totals years, though it does not include the time during which Joshua led Israel, nor the career of Samuel, and these two periods of time, while not specified biblically, must certainly total to something greater than 30 years they probably total close to 80 years in fact. Thus, the biblical stipulation of years from the Exodus to Solomon given in 1 Kings conflicts with the greater than year total for this same time period which one can calculate from chronological data given elsewhere in the Bible.
biblical scholar Carol Meyers offers a new and surprising view of the iconic exodus from Egypt. This victory hymn probably dates to the 12th century B.C.E.
Adding the years gives the date of BC on our calendar. Interestingly, the Greek Septuagint Bible gives years in this verse. The difference likely being whether the counting starts from the beginning or end of the year Exodus event. However, despite its seeming bedrock character, the BC date has largely been ignored or maligned by the modern theorists. The conventional Egyptian chronology compared with the biblical timeline.
Click to enlarge. The Egyptian history of the 18th Dynasty period does not harmonize with the biblical depiction of an Egypt crippled by plagues and a destroyed army. Yet, the biblical date has not changed in three millennia, while the proposed Egyptian chronology is of relatively recent construction, and still in a state of flux, with four major downward dating revisions in the last years Stewart , Have historians been looking for Exodus evidence in the wrong time frame of Egyptian history?
Based on the proposition that the Exodus did not precede the 15th-century, scholars have not tended to look for clues much earlier than the 18th Dynasty. A number of investigators e. A sound historical framework for these centuries has proved more difficult to establish than for any other major period of Egyptian history. Straight-forward rectification of the problems associated with the TIP potentially deletes more than years from the Egyptian timeline, which causes the prior dynasties to shift forward in time.